Eligible case patients are women (of any age) who meet the following criteria:
Case patients are invited to participate at the time of referral for diagnostic biopsy, or failing that, as soon as possible after diagnosis. Reasons for declining to participate are recorded.
Eligible control subjects are women who reside in the same neighbourhoods as the case patients and are of a similar age (± 5 years), but who do not have and have not had breast cancer.
Potential case patients are identified and approached by the oncologist when they come to the hospital for their first consultation for breast cancer. Potential control subjects are identified and approached by the staff in health care centres located in the various districts of the city; hospital staff may also approach neighbours who accompany potential case patients to their consultation. Potential case patients and control subjects who meet the eligibility criteria and wish to participate in the study are asked to sign an informed consent form and agree to provide blood and urine samples.
Case patients are women with breast cancer who visit the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat or the CHU Hassan II in Fez for a first consultation with an oncologist. The inclusion and exclusion criteria for cases are as follows:
Controls and cases are matched on patient age and city district. Control subjects are selected from the populations residing in the same districts in health care centres, or are neighbours who accompanied case patients to the hospital for consultation. Control subjects are recruited according to the approved protocol and sign an informed consent form. The inclusion and exclusion criteria for controls are as follows: